(Denali Highway, Alaska and Albany County, New York.) Habitat: In migration found on mud flats, exposed river beds, shallow edges of ponds and lakes.
Habitat: Thick spiny brush, weedy thickets, thick understory in tropical woodlands.
Chatter call is hoe maak je een ijskoffie made by both sexes; it may function as a contact call or gaatjes in schelpen maken an alarm call.Compare with blackpoll and blackburnian warblers.Return to top Yellowlegs, Greater Tringa melanoleuca Family: Scolopacidae The most common call is a series of 3 or 4 slightly descending 'tew' calls usually made in flight but also on the ground.This bird's song is more complex than the 'oh, dear me' commonly described in field guides.In that case, the number of 'dees' in each call is greater with smaller, more threatening predators.Here are two songs each of three birds ; the third song type has no trill.The dawn song is almost always sung before sunrise and can continue for many minutes without interuption; the bird in this recording sang continously for more than 10 minutes (American robin in background).In this recording a cowbird fledgling is begging from black-capped chickadees and was fed.Both male and females sing.Blackbird, Red-winged, agelaius phoeniceus, family: Icteridae, males sing the okaree song throughout the year, and during the breeding season they often sing it when doing the song-spread or flight displays.
Thrush, Varied Ixoreus naevius Family: Turdidae The male's marvelously weird song adds an otherworldly tone to the forest.
It is easily recognized; although the notes are variable.
The ki-keck alarm call is made mainly in flight and is used, for example, when predators enter a nesting area.
(Valley County, Montana and Weston County, Wyoming.) Habitat: Short grass prairie sometimes with shrubs, pastures, stubble, alfalfa fields.
(78 sec; Yellow-billed Cuckoo at beginning and Least Flycatcher in background.) (Albany County, New York) Habitat: Coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests in Canada and northern USA and in mountains.
The tremolo is also known as the "crazy laugh." It is used to signal alarm, and sometimes at night to vocally advertise and defend its territory. .Robin, American Turdus migratorius Family: Turdidae The male's song is a loud, caroled whistle often described as cheeriup cheerio.The birds called versions of ger-whit on the ground and while flying.Song may sound similar to the Blue-headed Vireo's song, but the Red-eye usually sings more rapidly.Songs and calls of related birds (Fringillidae).Return to top Wagtail, Eastern Yellow Motacilla tschutschensis Family: Motacillidae Often faint, the wagtail's contact-alarm calls are made in several contexts and are probably the most frequently heard calls this species makes.Unfortunately, there is a siren in the background of the first set of growls and a jet aircraft in the second set.The song is used by males to establish a breeding territory in the spring and by males and females to establish a feeding territory in the fall.Wren, House Troglodytes aedon Family: Troglodytidae Song is a complex, jumbled warble lasting 2-3 seconds.Bunting, Indigo Passerina cyanea Family: Cardinalidae The male's song varies among individuals, but usually contains three paired syllables per song (tew tew tse tse tsu tsu).In this chase a raven gives the alarm, flies off and begins the chase, which can be heard again about 15 sec later.This male sang two songs that differed only in the presence or absence of the last downslurred note.It often alternates the two songs, but also often repeats one song several times.Nuthatch, White-breasted Sitta carolinensis Family: Sittidae The most common call is a nasal yank which is given by both sexes when disturbed or excited.

Warbler, Prairie Setophaga discolor Family: Parulidae Male's song is an easily recognized series of rising notes.
(Madera Canyon, Arizona and Custer County, South Dakota).